1. Thomasson, Amie L. (2015) Ontology made easy
  2. E : For a general noun 'K', Ks exist iff the application conditions actually associated with 'K', here and now at our actual world, are fulfilled.(p.86)
  3. On deflationary views of truth, reference, or existence, the term in question has a very different function than to attempt to refer to a substantive property the nature of which we can investigate and hope to discover.(p.87)
  4. Application conditions are semantic rules of use which speakers master, but these rules need not take the form of necessary and sufficient conditions, and need not be statable. They are rules for when it is and is not proper to use a term, which speakers master in acquiring competence with applying and refusing a new term ...(p.93)
  5. ... In various situations, and that (once mastered) enable competent speakers to evaluate whether or not the term would properly be applied in a range of actual and hypothetical situations.(p.93)
  6. Schema E is a purely formal criterion for existence (p.116)