Word Sounds 2: Should be the same but they're not

Sometimes the way words are pronounced makes no sense. Here's a list of some examples.
  1. Chose and Choose vs Lose and Loose
    Chose has an "oh-z" sound and Choose has an "oo-z" sound; but Lose has an "oo-z" sound and Loose has an "oo-s" sound
  2. Woman vs Women
    Woman is pronounced "wuh-man" but change the "a" to an "e" and it becomes "wi-min" for some reason. (Although I've found South Africans pronounce it "wuh-men".)
  3. Taught vs Laugh
    "or" sound vs "arf" sound, that's pretty different.
  4. Hour vs Your
    "ow-r" and "or" (and don't even mention the silent "h").
  5. One vs None vs Gone vs Stone
    "wuh", "uh", "o" and "oh" sounds from the same three letters.
  6. "ough" is the worst
    And see my list on "ough" here Word Sounds 1: Different ways "ough" can sound