With some help from 🍎🍏🍍🍌.
  1. The Serial Comma
    Use a comma before the final conjunction in a list. It's also called an Oxford comma. I like apples, bananas, and pineapples. Then immediately get into a disagreement with your friend on whether to use the serial comma.
  2. The Sentence-Joining Comma
    Use a comma to join two main clauses that are connected by a conjunction. Two main clauses ... whaaa? That means two full sentences. I like apples, but he likes pineapples. If you are joining two clauses that are not full sentences, do not use a comma. I polish apples and peel bananas. Yes, sometimes we use a comma if the second part of a sentence hugely contrasts the first, but let's not get into that today!
  3. The Adjective Comma
    If you can put the word "and" between adjectives, you can generally use a comma. I like big and red apples. I like big, red apples.
  4. The Conditional Sentence Comma
    Use a comma when an "if" clause starts a sentence. If you like the pineapple, ask for more.
  5. The Nonessential Clause Comma
    Use a comma to set off a piece of a sentence that can be left out and not change the meaning of what's left in that sentence. The apple, which is green, is in the fruit basket. The apple is in the fruit basket.
  6. The Direct Address/Interjection Comma
    Use a comma when addressing someone or using an interjection at the start of a sentence. Hey, apple lover! Happy birthday, pineapple eater. Indeed, we ate the bananas. Oh, you left the apples on the table?